Periodontal disease is diagnosed by your dentist during a periodontal examination.
A small dental instrument is gently used to measure the pocket or space between the tooth and the gums. The depth of healthy gums measure three millimeters or less and does not bleed. The periodontal probe helps indicate if pockets are deeper than three millimeters. As gum disease progresses, the pockets usually get deeper.
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Your dentist or hygienist will use pocket depths, amount of bleeding, inflammation, tooth mobility, etc., to make a diagnosis that will fall into a category below:
Gingivitis is the first stage of periodontal disease. Plaque and its toxin by-products irritate the gums, making them tender, inflamed, and likely to bleed.
Plaque hardens into calculus (tartar). As calculus and plaque continue to build up, the gums begin to recede from the teeth. Deeper pockets form between the gums and teeth and become filled with bacteria and pus. The gums become very irritated, inflamed, and bleed easily. Calculus secretes toxins that the bone shrinks away from, and as a result bone loss may be present.
The teeth lose more support as the gums, bone, and periodontal ligament continue to be destroyed. Unless treated, the affected teeth will become very loose and may be lost. Generalized moderate to severe bone loss may be present.
Gum Disease Treatment
Gum treatment methods depend upon the type and severity of the disease. Your dentist and dental hygienist will recommend appropriate treatment.
Gum disease progresses as the pocket or space between the tooth and gums fill with bacteria, plaque, and tartar, causing irritation to the surrounding tissues. When these irritants remain in the pocket, they can cause damage to the gums and eventually, the bone that supports the teeth.
If the disease is caught in the early stages of gingivitis, and no damage has been done, one to two regular cleanings will be recommended. You will also be given instructions on improving your daily oral hygiene habits and having regular dental cleanings.
If the disease has progressed to more advanced stages, a special periodontal deep cleaning will be recommended. In this procedure, tartar, plaque, and toxins are removed from above and below the gum line and rough spots on root surfaces are made smooth. This procedure helps gum tissue to heal and pockets to shrink. Mouth rinses, medications, and an electric toothbrush are recommended to help control infection and healing.
Gum Disease Maintenance
It only takes twenty-four hours for plaque that is not removed from your teeth to turn into calculus (tartar)! Daily home cleaning helps control plaque and tartar formation, but those hard to reach areas will always need special attention.
Once your gum treatment has been completed, your dentist and dental hygienist will recommend that you have regular maintenance cleanings (periodontal cleanings), usually four times a year. At these cleaning appointments, the pocket depths will be checked. Plaque and calculus that is difficult for you to remove on a daily basis will be removed from above and below the gum line.
In addition to your periodontal cleaning and evaluation, your dental appointment will usually include:
Examination of diagnostic x-rays (radiographs): Essential for detection of decay, tumors, cysts, and bone loss. X-rays also help determine tooth and root positions.
Examination of existing restorations: Check current fillings, crowns, etc.
Examination of tooth decay: Check all tooth surfaces for decay.
Oral cancer screening: Check the face, neck, lips, tongue, throat, cheek tissues, and gums for any signs of oral cancer.
Oral hygiene recommendations: Review and recommend oral hygiene aids as needed (Electric toothbrushes, special periodontal brushes, fluorides, rinses, etc.)
Teeth polishing: Remove stain and plaque that is not otherwise removed during tooth brushing.
Good oral hygiene practices and periodontal cleanings are essential in maintaining dental health and keeping gum disease under control!
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